Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondropathy. In this study, we conducted the first genome-wide copy number variation study (GCNVS) of KBD totally involving 2,743 Chinese Han adults. GCNVS was first performed using Affymetrix Human SNP6.0 Arrays. The identified copy number variations (CNVs) were then replicated in an independent Chinese Han sample containing 1,026 subjects. SNP genotyping, CNV identification and quality control were implemented by Birdsuite. STRUCTURE and EIGENSTRAT were applied for controlling potential population stratification in the GCNVS. Association analysis was conducted using PLINK. Microarray and qRT-PCR were also conducted to compare the expression levels of the genes overlapping with identified CNVs between KBD patients and healthy controls. GCNVS found that CNV452 (P value = 7.78 × 10(-5)) overlapping with ABI3BP gene was significantly associated with KBD. Replication association study observed that rs9850273 (P value = 0.008) and rs7613610 (P value = 0.021) in ABI3BP gene were significantly associated with KBD. Gene expression analysis also found that ABI3BP was up-regulated in KBD patients compared to healthy controls. Our results suggest that ABI3BP was a novel susceptibility gene for KBD.