Adipose tissue (AT) depots are heterogeneous in terms of morphology and adipocyte metabolism. Adiponectin, one of the most abundant adipokines, is known for its insulin sensitizing effects and its role in glucose and lipid metabolism. Little is known about the presence of adiponectin protein in visceral (vc) and subcutaneous (sc) AT depots. We assessed serum adiponectin and adiponectin protein concentrations and the molecular weight forms in vc (mesenterial, omental, and retroperitoneal) and sc (sternum, tail-head, and withers) AT of primiparous dairy cows during early lactation. Primiparous German Holstein cows (n = 25) were divided into a control (CON) and a conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) group. From day 1 of lactation until slaughter, CLA cows were fed 100 g of a CLA supplement/d (approximately 6% of cis-9, trans-11 and trans-10, cis-12 isomers each), whereas the CON cows received 100 g of a fatty acid mixture/d instead of CLA. Blood samples from all animals were collected from 3 wk before calving until slaughter on day 1 (n = 5, CON cows), 42 (n = 5 each of CON and CLA cows), and 105 (n = 5 each of CON and CLA cows) of lactation when samples from different AT depots were obtained. Adiponectin was measured in serum and tissue by ELISA. In all AT depots adiponectin concentrations were lowest on day 1 than on day 42 and day 105, and circulating adiponectin reached a nadir around parturition. Retroperitoneal AT had the lowest adiponectin concentrations; however, when taking total depot mass into consideration, the portion of circulating adiponectin was higher in vc than sc AT. Serum adiponectin was positively correlated with adiponectin protein concentrations but not with the mRNA abundance in all fat depots. The CLA supplementation did not affect adiponectin concentrations in AT depots. Furthermore, inverse associations between circulating adiponectin and measures of body condition (empty body weight, back fat thickness, and vc AT mass) were observed. In all AT depots at each time, adiponectin was present as high (approximately 300 kDa) and medium (approximately 150 kDa) molecular weight complexes similar to that of the blood serum. These data suggest differential contribution of AT depots to circulating adiponectin.