This study assessed the efficacy and safety of the once-daily glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonist, lixisenatide, in Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled on metformin ± sulfonylurea.
In this 24-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multinational study, patients were randomized to lixisenatide 20 µg once daily or placebo. The primary endpoint was absolute change in glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c) from baseline to week 24.
A total of 391 patients were randomized. Lixisenatide significantly reduced HbA1c levels compared with placebo (LS mean difference: -0.36%, p = 0.0004). A significantly higher proportion of lixisenatide-treated patients achieved HbA1c targets of <7% (p = 0.003) and ≤6.5% (p = 0.001) versus placebo. Lixisenatide was associated with a statistically significant reduction in 2-h postprandial plasma glucose after a standardized breakfast versus placebo (LS mean difference: -4.28 mmol/L, p < 0.0001) and a significant reduction in fasting plasma glucose (p = 0.0109). There was no difference in weight loss versus placebo, with a modest reduction in body weight reported for both groups (lixisenatide: -1.50 kg, placebo: -1.24 kg; p = 0.296). The incidence of treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) was 64.3% with lixisenatide versus 47.4% with placebo, with serious TEAEs reported in 1.5% versus 2.1% of patients, respectively. The most common TEAE in the lixisenatide group was nausea (16.3% vs 2.6% with placebo). The incidence of symptomatic hypoglycaemia was 5.6% with lixisenatide treatment and 2.6% with placebo (p = 0.1321), with no severe symptomatic hypoglycaemia events reported.
In Asian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus insufficiently controlled on metformin ± sulfonylurea, lixisenatide significantly improved glycaemic control and was well tolerated during the 24-week study.