Nutrition is linked strongly with health outcomes in chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, few studies have examined relationships between dietary patterns and health outcomes in persons with CKD.
Observational cohort study.
3,972 participants with CKD (defined as estimated glomerular filtration rate < 60 mL/min/1.73 m2 or albumin-creatinine ratio ≥ 30 mg/g at baseline) from the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study, a prospective cohort study of 30,239 black and white adults at least 45 years of age.
5 empirically derived dietary patterns identified by factor analysis: "convenience" (Chinese and Mexican foods, pizza, and other mixed dishes), "plant-based" (fruits and vegetables), "sweets/fats" (sugary foods), "Southern" (fried foods, organ meats, and sweetened beverages), and "alcohol/salads" (alcohol, green-leafy vegetables, and salad dressing).
All-cause mortality and end-stage renal disease (ESRD).
816 deaths and 141 ESRD events were observed over approximately 6 years of follow-up. There were no statistically significant associations of convenience, sweets/fats, or alcohol/salads pattern scores with all-cause mortality after multivariable adjustment. In Cox regression models adjusted for sociodemographic factors, energy intake, comorbid conditions, and baseline kidney function, higher plant-based pattern scores (indicating greater consistency with the pattern) were associated with lower risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 0.77; 95% CI, 0.61-0.97), whereas higher Southern pattern scores were associated with greater risk of mortality (HR comparing fourth to first quartile, 1.51; 95% CI, 1.19-1.92). There were no associations of dietary patterns with incident ESRD in multivariable-adjusted models.
Missing dietary pattern data, potential residual confounding from lifestyle factors.
A Southern dietary pattern rich in processed and fried foods was associated independently with mortality in persons with CKD. In contrast, a diet rich in fruits and vegetables appeared to be protective.