We report on the endovascular management of hemorrhage with stent-graft due to a misplaced central venous catheter in the vertebral artery (VA) during percutaneous internal jugular vein catheterization in a child.
A 16-year-old female was presented with the diagnosis of familial Mediterranean fever related chronic renal insufficiency. An attempt was made to place a central venous catheter via the right internal jugular vein without image guidance and the patient experienced dyspnea and pain at the catheter insertion site. Computerized tomography (CT) showed hemorrhage in the cervical region and upper mediastinum, also reformatted images showed that the catheter was passing through the proximal part of the VA and terminating in the right mediastinum. The catheter was removed during manual compression under angio-flouroscopic monitoring and ongoing extravasation was observed. A stent-graft was placed to the bleeding site of the VA.
Angiography immediately after the stent-graft placement revealed complete disappearance of extravasation and patency of vertebral and subclavian arteries.
Central venous catheterization (CVC) is not a risk-free procedure and arterial injuries are in a wide spectrum from a simple puncture to rupture of the artery. Inadvertent VA cannulation is a rare and serious complication necessitating prompt diagnosis and early treatment. If an arterial injury with a large-caliber catheter occurs, endovascular treatment with stent-graft seems to be a safe and effective option in terms of achieving hemostasis and preserving arterial patency. Recent findings suggest that endovascular management of inadvertent cervical arterial injury secondary to CVC seems to be the safest strategy.