Sixty to 80% of multiple endocrine neoplasia type 1 (MEN1) patients develop pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasias (pNENs), which reveal an aggressive behavior in 10%-20% of patients. Causative MEN1 mutations in the interacting domains of the encoded Menin protein directly alter its regulation abilities and may influence the phenotype.
The objective of the study was the evaluation of an association between MEN1 mutations in different interacting domains of Menin and the phenotype of pNENs.
This was a retrospective analysis of a prospectively collected cohort of 71 genetically confirmed MEN1 patients at a tertiary referral center.
Analysis of patients' characteristics and clinical phenotype of pNENs regarding the mutation type and its location in Menin interacting domains was measured.
Sixty-seven patients (93%) developed pNENs after a median follow-up of 134 months. Patients with mutations leading to loss of interaction (LOI) with the checkpoint kinase 1 (CHES1) interacting domain codons (428-610) compared with patients with mutations resulting in LOI with other domains (eg, JunD, Smad3) had significantly higher rates of functioning pNENs (70% vs 34%), malignant pNENs (59% vs 16%), and aggressive pNENs (37% vs 9%), respectively. Patients with CHES1-LOI also had an increased pNEN-related mortality (20% vs 4.5%). Neither gender, age, nor the ABO blood types were associated with the phenotype of pNENs.
MEN1 patients with MEN1 mutations leading to CHES1-LOI have a higher risk of malignant pNENs with an aggressive course of disease and disease-related death.