The impact of the various elements of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on chronic kidney disease (CKD) has been conflicting. Therefore, in the present study we aimed to examine the association of MetS and its components with decreased glomerular filtration rate (GFR).
A total of 75,468 urban workers who underwent annual health examinations under the auspices of the local governments between March 2010 and September 2012 at the health examination center of Xuzhou center hospital were enrolled in the cross-sectional survey. Decreased GFR was defined as an estimated GFR <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2. The definition of MetS was based on the most-recent interim joint consensus definition, requiring any three of the five components, consisting of elevated blood pressure (BP), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), or triglycerides (TG), reduced high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-c), and obesity.
MetS was related to the reduced GFR with an odds ratio [95% confidence interval (CI)] of 1.43 (1.13-1.83). In multivariable analyses, individual components of MetS that were independently associated with decreased GFR were elevated BP (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.00-1.78), low HDL-c (OR 1.88, 95% CI 1.44-2.43), and elevated FPG (OR 1.42, 95% CI 1.09-1.85). The age-adjusted population-attributable risk percent (PARP) for reduced GFR was 27.55%, 19.67% and14.31% for elevated BP, low HDL-c and elevated FPG respectively. The multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of decreased GFR were 1.70(1.11-2.60), 2.38(1.53-3.71), or 4.11(2.42-6.98) for those with 1, 2, or 3 critical elements (versus zero), respectively. The corresponding multivariate-adjusted odds ratios (95% CI) of decreased GFR were 1.11(0.84-1.48) and 0.89(0.63-1.27) for those with 1 or 2 noncritical components (versus zero), respectively.
We concluded that various elements of MetS and the cumulative number of MetS should not be considered indiscriminately as risk factors for reduced GFR.