A posterior rectus sheath hernia is an abdominal wall hernia that is rarely encountered. Owing to its rarity, it can be easily overlooked in the setting of a patient presenting with abdominal pain. We report a case of a posterior rectus sheath hernia that caused intermittent small bowel obstruction. The unusual aspects of this case are that the defect was large, measuring 6 cm in the transverse diameter, and that it contained small bowel within a large portion of the rectus sheath. Because the defect was large and affected nearly the entire posterior rectus sheath, it was difficult to discern on computed tomography until a small bowel obstruction developed. In this case, a limited awareness of this clinical entity contributed to the delay in diagnosis.