Contrast-induced acute kidney injury (CI-AKI) is a serious complication that is difficult to predict in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). The aim of this study was to investigate predictors and clinical outcomes of CI-AKI in patients with CKD after PCI. A total of 297 patients with CKD who underwent PCI from September 2006 to December 2011 were enrolled. CI-AKI was defined as serum creatinine level either ≥25% or ≥0.5 mg/dl from baseline within 72 hours after PCI. The primary outcome was all-cause death. The median follow-up duration was 26 months (interquartile range 12 to 40), and CI-AKI occurred in 55 patients (19%). In multivariate logistic regression analyses, the development of CI-AKI was associated with female gender, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, PCI for left main disease, serum hemoglobin level, and a contrast volume to creatinine clearance ratio >6.0. The development of CI-AKI was significantly associated with increased in-hospital mortality (18.2% vs 3.7%, p = 0.001). Cox proportional-hazard analysis showed that the incidence of all-cause death was significantly higher in patients who developed CI-AKI than in those without CI-AKI (41.8% vs 16.1%, adjusted hazard ratio 3.0, 95% confidence interval 1.6 to 5.6, p <0.001). In conclusion, female gender, left ventricular systolic dysfunction, acute myocardial infarction, PCI for left main disease, serum hemoglobin level, and contrast volume to creatinine clearance ratio >6.0 are independent predictors of CI-AKI. The development of CI-AKI is significantly associated with increased in-hospital and long-term adverse clinical outcomes in patients with CKD undergoing PCI.