To evaluate the association between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in patients with benign prostatic enlargement (BPE).
From 2009 onward, a consecutive series of patients with LUTS-BPE were enrolled. Patients were evaluated using the International Prostate Symptom Score (IPSS) and ultrasonographic prostate volume. Body mass index, waist circumference, and blood pressure were measured. Blood samples were collected for prostate-specific antigen levels, fasting glucose levels, triglyceride levels, high-density lipoprotein levels, and testosterone levels. MetS was defined according to Adult Treatment Panel III (ATP III). The risk of detecting LUTS as a function of MetS was evaluated using the logistic regression analysis.
A total of 431 patients were enrolled with a median age and prostate-specific antigen level of 67 years (61-73 years) and 3 ng/mL (2.2-4.3 ng/mL), respectively; median body mass index was 27 kg/m2 (25-29 kg/m(2)); median testosterone was 3.9 ng/mL (3.1-4.7 ng/mL); median IPSS was 8 (4-14), median prostate volume was 43 mL (35-56 mL). One hundred three of 431 patients (23.8%) presented with a MetS. Patients with MetS presented a higher IPSS storage subscore (4; interquartile range, 2-7 vs 3; interquartile range 1-7; P = .002). On multivariate analysis, the presence of MetS was associated with an increased risk of an IPSS storage subscore ≥4 (odds ratio, 1.782; 95% confidence interval, 1.045-3.042; P = .030).
In our single-center study, MetS is associated with an increased risk of storage symptoms in patients with BPE. Although these results should be confirmed, and the pathophysiology is yet to be understood, it can be assumed that MetS and its metabolic components should be considered as possible factors involved in LUTS-BPE pathogenesis.