In the present study, we changed the fatty acid profile in blood and platelet membranes by dietary manipulation, and examined the effect on platelet aggregation in rats. Fifty-five rats were divided into five groups and fed for 56 days with 1% cholesterol and different types of fatty acid-rich diets: basal, lard, lard + fish oil, soybean oil, and soybean oil + fish oil. a decrease in serum arachidonic acid (20:4, omega-6, AA) and an increase in serum eicosapentaenoic acid (20:5, omega-3, EPA) were found in all experimental dietary groups fed with refined fish oil. Similar changes in the polyunsaturated fatty acids were also found in the platelet membrane phospholipids. Platelet aggregation, quantitated by the slope and height of the aggregation curve induced by different concentrations of ADP in a platelet aggregometer, was inhibited in all groups fed with refined fish oil. This inhibition of platelet aggregation may be related to an increase in the ratio of EPA and AA in the platelet membrane phospholipids after dietary manipulation. The differences in the platelet aggregation and thromboxane B2 (TXB2) concentration between the lard and the lard + fish oil groups were more profound than that between the soybean oil and the soybean oil + fish oil group. However, the malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration revealed no significant differences between the five groups.