Risk factors for the development of post-ERCP pancreatitis (PEP) have not been identified in the pediatric population. It remains unclear what constitutes appropriate prophylaxis in this patient population.
To assess the prevalence and severity of PEP in the pediatric population and identify factors associated with developing PEP and to evaluate the effect of prophylactic pancreatic duct stenting in high-risk patients.
Retrospective analysis of an ERCP database at a single large pediatric center.
A total of 432 ERCPs performed on 313 patients younger than 19 years of age from January 2004 to October 2013.
ERCP for any indication.
Rates and severity of PEP, preprocedural and procedural risk factors for the development of PEP, and the effect of pancreatic stents on preventing PEP in high-risk patients.
PEP occurred after 47 procedures (prevalence, 10.9%). Thirty-four cases were mild, 9 were moderate, and 4 were severe. There was no mortality. On multiple logistic analysis, pancreatic duct injection (P<.0001; odds ratio 30.8; 95% confidence interval [CI], 9.1-103.9) and pancreatic sphincterotomy (P<.01; OR 3.8; 95% CI, 1.6-9.8) were positively associated with PEP. A history of chronic pancreatitis was negatively associated with PEP (P<.05; OR 0.37; 95% CI, 0.15-0.93). On subset analysis, placing a prophylactic pancreatic stent was associated with significantly increased rates of PEP in patients with pancreatic duct injection compared with those who had no attempt at stent placement (P<.01). Two patients with severe pancreatitis had prophylactic pancreatic stents in place.
In the pediatric population, pancreatic duct injection and pancreatic sphincterotomy are associated with significantly increased rates of PEP, whereas a history of chronic pancreatitis is negatively associated. Prophylactic pancreatic stenting is associated with higher rates of PEP in high-risk patients and does not eliminate severe PEP.