The association between coffee intake and type 2 diabetes may be modulated by common genetic variation.
The purpose of this study was to examine the association between habitual coffee intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes and to determine whether this association varied by genetic polymorphisms related to type 2 diabetes in Korean adults.
A population-based cohort study over a follow-up of 4 years was conducted. A total of 4077 Korean men and women aged 40-69 years with a normal glucose level at baseline were included. Coffee intake was assessed using a validated food frequency questionnaire, and incident type 2 diabetes or prediabetes was defined by oral glucose tolerance test or fasting blood glucose test. The genomic DNA samples were genotyped with the Affymetrix Genome-Wide Human SNP Array 5.0, and nine single-nucleotide polymorphisms related to type 2 diabetes in East Asian populations were extracted.
A total of 120 cases of type 2 diabetes and 1128 cases of prediabetes were identified. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, we observed an inverse association, but without any clear linear trend, between coffee intake and the combined risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes. We found that inverse associations between habitual coffee intake and the combined risk of type 2 diabetes and prediabetes were limited to those with the T-allele (GT/TT) of rs4402960 in IGF2BP2, those with the G-allele (GG/GC) of rs7754840 in CDKAL1, or those with CC of rs5215 in KCNJ11.
We found a lower risk of prediabetes and type 2 diabetes combined with coffee intake among individuals with the GT/TT of IGF2BP2 rs4402960, GG/GC of CDKAL1 rs7754840, or CC of KCNJ11 rs5215, which are known to be related to type 2 diabetes in East Asians.