High-resolution manometry (HRM) provides information on esophagogastric junction (EGJ) morphology, distinguishing three different subtypes. Data on the correlation between EGJ subtypes and impedance-pH detected reflux patterns are lacking. We aimed to correlate the EGJ subtypes with impedance-pH findings in patients with reflux symptoms.
Consecutive patients with suspected gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) were enrolled. All patients underwent HRM and impedance-pH testing off-therapy. EGJ was classified as: Type I, no separation between the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) and crural diaphragm (CD); Type II, minimal separation (>1 and <2 cm); Type III, ≥ 2 cm separation. We measured esophageal acid exposure time (AET), number of total reflux episodes and symptom association analysis.
We enrolled 130 consecutive patients and identified 46.2% Type I EGJ, 38.5% Type II, and 15.4% Type III patients. Type III subjects had a higher number of reflux episodes (61 vs 45, p < 0.03, vs 25, p < 0.001), a greater mean AET (12.4 vs 4.2, p < 0.02, vs 1.5, p < 0.001) and a greater positive symptom association (75% vs 72%, p = 0.732 vs 43.3%, p < 0.02) compared with Type II and I patients, respectively. Furthermore, Type II subjects showed statistically significant (overall p < 0.01) increased reflux when compared with Type I patients. Type III and II EGJ morphologies had a more frequent probability to show a positive multichannel intraluminal impedance pH monitoring than Type I (95% vs 84% vs 50%, p < 0.001).
Increasing separation between LES and CD can cause a gradual and significant increase in reflux. EGJ morphology may be useful to estimate an abnormal impedance-pH testing in GERD patients.