To analyze the impact of the substitution of a rich diet in saturated fats with a rich diet in monounsaturated fats on anthropometric, metabolic and lipid profile in postmenopausal women.
A prospective, longitudinal and comparative study where 18 postmenopausal women participated in two periods of dietary intervention of 28 days each one: 1) (SAT diet) consumed butter. Caloric formula (CF) = 15% protein, 38% fat. [20% saturated fat (SFA), 12% monounsaturated fat (MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates and 6% polyunsaturated (PUFA)]. b) Period MONO: with extra virgin olive oil (EVOO). CF = 15% protein, 38% fat (<10% SFA, 22% PUFA and 6% MUFA) and 47% carbohydrates. Size and body composition, glucose, insulin, HOMA, TC, HDL-C, LDL-C, VLDL-C, TG, TC/HDL-C, LDL-C/HDL-C, TG/HDL-C and non-HDL-C/HDL.C were measured; dietary Anamnesis/24 hours, daily food record. ANOVA and Bonferroni statistical analysis (SPSS 20) was applied.
The age was 56 ± 5 years, BMI 29.8 ± 3.1 kg/m2, waist circumference: 93.2 ± 10.1 cm, waist/hip ratio: 0.86 ± 0.14, waist/height: 0.59 ± 0.06 and 38.6 ± 4% body fat (NS). Lipid profile: SAT diet increased TC (p <0.001), LDL-C (p <0.002) and non HDL-Cholesterol (p <0.000), HDL-C increased in MONO diet (p <0.000). SAT diet: TC/HDL-c ratio, Non col HDL-c/HDL-c, LDL-c/HDL-c (p <0.000) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.000). In MONO diet decreased TC/HDL-c (p <0.015) and TG/HDL-c (p <0.016).
The SAT diet increased cardiovascular risk, while the MONO diet decreased the risk to develop the metabolic syndrome components and choronary heart disease.