Diverticulosis of the colon is a common disease with an increasing incidence in Western countries. Recent literature has shown some changes in the traditional approach of this disease. The theory that diverticulosis is caused by a reduced intake of dietary fibre, is doubtful. There might be some chemical and histological overlap between diverticulitis, inflammatory bowel disease and irritable bowel disease. High quality clinical study found no effect for antibiotics in acute, uncomplicated diverticulitis. Cyclic administration of mesalazine and rifaximin result in reduced symptoms of diverticular disease. For the treatment of diverticular abscesses, percutaneous drainage shows promising results. Recurrence of acute diverticulitis is rare and most serious complications are linked to the first episode. Recent evidence does not support the traditional recommendation for elective surgery after two episodes of acute diverticulitis any more. This review summarizes the last evidence in diverticular disease and diverticulitis.