Human norovirus infection causes significant medical and financial costs in the USA and abroad. Some populations, including young children, the elderly, and the immunocompromised, are at heightened risk of infection with this virus and subsequent complications, while others, such as healthcare workers and food handlers are at increased risk of transmitting it, and some are at risk of both. Human noroviruses are heterogeneous with new strains emerging periodically. In addition to viral diversity, incompletely understood characteristics, such as virus-host cell binding and duration of immunity after infection add to the challenges of creating a norovirus vaccine. Although much progress has been made in recent years, many questions remain to be answered. In this review, we discuss the important areas and relevant literature in considering human norovirus vaccine development and potential targets for implementation.