Oral cancer is one of the most common malignancies worldwide, and India has recorded the highest annual incidence of oral cancer in comparison with other countries. Altered lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status along with defect in detoxification cascade have been implicated in the pathogenesis of several cancers including oral cancer. The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive potential of ethanolic extract of Enicostemma littorale leaves (ElELet) in 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinogenesis. Oral tumor was developed in the buccal pouches of male golden Syrian hamsters by painting with 0.5% DMBA three times a week for 14 weeks. We observed 100% tumor formation with increase in tumor volume and tumor burden in the hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Imbalance in phase I (cytochrome P450 and cytochrome b5) and phase II (glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione, and Deoxythymidine-diaphorase (DT)-diaphorase) detoxification agents and lipid peroxidation by-products (thiobarbituric acid reactive substances) and antioxidant (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and vitamins E and C) status was noticed in hamsters treated with DMBA alone. Oral administration of ElELet at a dose of 250 mg/kg body weight to hamsters treated with DMBA significantly prevented both precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral cavity. ElELet modulated the status of phase I and II detoxification agents and antioxidants in favor of the suppression of oral carcinogenesis. This study thus suggests that E. littorale might have inhibited the oral carcinogenesis in DMBA-treated hamsters through its antioxidant potential. The present findings are also substantiated by histological studies during DMBA-induced oral carcinogenesis.