The objective of this study is to measure serum chemerin levels in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and assess their relationship with clinical, metabolic, and hormonal parameters. One hundred eighteen PCOS women and 114 healthy women were recruited in this study. Their blood pressure, body mass index (BMI), waist circumference and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR), fasting insulin (FIN), fasting plasma glucose (FPG), blood serum sex hormone, and blood lipid were measured. Serum chemerin, leptin, and adiponectin were measured by ELISA. Serum chemerin was significantly higher in the obese PCOS group (47.62 ± 11.27 ng/mL) compared with non-obese PCOS (37.10 ± 9.55 ng/mL) and the obese (33.71 ± 6.17 ng/mL) and non-obese (25.78 ± 6.93 ng/mL) control groups (p < 0.05). Serum chemerin was positively related to BMI, waist circumference, WHR, testosterone (T), FPG, FIN, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride (TG), low-density lipoprotein (LDL-C), LDL-C/high-density lipoprotein(HDL-C), TC/HDL-C and serum leptin, while negatively related to glucose-to-insulin ratio (G/I), HDL-C, and adiponectin levels. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed HOMA-IR, leptin, and TC were the significant influencing factors of chemerin levels (p < 0.05). Increased serum chemerin in PCOS woman with or without obesity suggested that chemerin may be involved in the development of the pathogenesis of PCOS.