Vitamin D plays an important role in the mineral and bone disorder seen in chronic kidney disease (CKD). Deficiency of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) is highly prevalent in the adult CKD population.
The prevalence and determinants of 25OHD deficiency (defined as a level <20 ng/ml) were examined longitudinally in 506 children in the CKiD cohort. Predictors of secondary hyperparathyroidism and the determinants of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25(OH)2D) levels were also evaluated.
Deficiency of 25OHD was observed in 28 % of the cohort at enrollment. Significant predictors of 25OHD deficiency were older age, non-white race, higher body mass index, assessment during winter, less often than daily milk intake, non-use of nutritional vitamin D supplement and proteinuria. Lower values of glomerular filtration rate (GFR), serum 25OHD, calcium and higher levels of FGF23 were significant determinants of secondary hyperparathyroidism. Lower GFR, low serum 25OHD, nephrotic-range proteinuria, and high FGF23 levels were significant determinants of serum 1,25(OH)2 D levels.
Deficiency of 25OHD is prevalent in children with CKD and is associated with potentially modifiable risk factors such as milk intake, nutritional vitamin D supplement use, and proteinuria. 25OHD deficiency is a risk factor for secondary hyperparathyroidism and decreased serum 1,25(OH)2D in children with CKD.