Women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) are at increased risk for maternal and fetal complications including delivery of large for gestational age (LGA) infants. Maternal body mass index (BMI) and excessive weight gain during pregnancy are associated with delivery of LGA infants. However, whether maternal BMI and weight gain are associated with LGA infants in women with GDM is unclear.
Data on 1049 pregnant women who developed GDM were collected from a university teaching hospital in China and retrospectively analyzed. Data included maternal BMI, weight gain, incidence of LGA and gestational week at diagnosis.
The incidence of LGA infants was significantly associated with maternal BMI (p=0.0002) in women with GDM. The odds of delivery of LGA for obese or overweight pregnant women are 3.8 or 2 times more than normal weight pregnant women. The incidence of LGA infants was also significantly associated with maternal weight gain in women with GDM. The odds ratio of delivery of LGA for pregnant women with excessive weight gain was 3.3 times more than pregnant women with normal weight gain. The effect of weight gain was not significantly different between different maternal BMI.
The incidence of delivery of LGA infants in Chinese women with GDM who were overweight or obese is higher than Caucasians, Hispanic, and Asian-Americans. The effects of maternal BMI and weight gain on the delivery of LGA infants by women with GDM are additive.