Neuropeptide FF (NPFF) system has recently been reported to modulate cannabinoid-induced antinociception. The aim of the present study was to further investigate the roles of NPFF system in the antinociceptive effects induced by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) administration of mouse VD-hemopressin(α), a novel endogenous agonist of cannabinoid CB1 receptor, in naive and VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice. The effects of NPFF system on the antinociception induced by VD-hemopressin(α) were investigated in the radiant heat tail-flick test in naive mice and VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice. The cannabinoid-tolerant mice were produced by given daily injections of VD-hemopressin(α) (20 nmol, i.c.v.) for 5 days and the antinociception was measured on day 6. In naive mice, intracerebroventricular injection of NPFF dose-dependently attenuated central analgesia of VD-hemopressin(α). In contrast, neuropeptide VF (NPVF) and D.NP(N-Me)AFLFQPQRF-NH2 (dNPA), two highly selective agonists for Neuropeptide FF1 and Neuropeptide FF2 receptors, enhanced VD-hemopressin(α)-induced antinociception in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, the VD-hemopressin(α)-modulating activities of NPFF and related peptides were antagonized by the Neuropeptide FF receptors selective antagonist 1-adamantanecarbonyl-RF-NH2 (RF9). In VD-hemopressin(α)-tolerant mice, NPFF failed to modify VD-hemopressin(α)-induced antinociception. However, both neuropeptide VF and dNPA dose-dependently potentiated the antinociception of VD-hemopressin(α) and these cannabinoid-potentiating effects were reduced by RF9. The present works support the cannabinoid-modulating character of NPFF system in naive and cannabinoid-tolerant mice. In addition, the data suggest that a chronic cannabinoid treatment modifies the pharmacological profiles of NPFF, but not the cannabinoid-potentiating effects of neuropeptide VF and dNPA.