Severe sepsis/septic shock is associated with high mortality. In Central Europe, there is a dearth of information on the prevalence and treatment of severe sepsis. The EPOSS (Data-based Evaluation and Prediction of Outcome in Severe Sepsis) project launched in 2011 was aimed at collecting data on patients with severe sepsis/septic shock.
The EPOSS study processes data from the EPOSS project database, and is a retrospective, multicentre, observational study. This included all consecutive patients aged 18 and over who were admitted to participating ICUs from 1 January 2011 to 5 November 2013 and met the inclusion criteria of severe sepsis/septic shock. The primary endpoint was to analyse the relationship between in-hospital mortality (either in ICU or after discharge from ICU) and the type and number of fulfilled diagnostic and treatment interventions during the first 6 h after the diagnosis of severe sepsis/septic shock.
The collected dataset involved 1082 patients meeting the criteria of severe sepsis/septic shock. Following data validation, a final dataset of 897 patients was obtained. The average age of the patient group was 64.7 years; mortality at discharge from EPOSS ICUs was 35.5% and from hospital 40.7%. Of the 10 evaluated diagnostic and treatment interventions within the initial 6 hours of identifying severe sepsis/septic shock (i.e. fulfilment of SSC bundles), four or five diagnostic and treatment interventions were administered to 58.4% patients. Combined diagnostic and treatment interventions associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality were: CVP of ≥8-12 mm Hg & MAP of ≥65 mm Hg & Urine output at ≥0.5 mL/kg/h & Lactate of ≤4.0 mmol/L & Initial lactate measured & Antibiotics in the first hour. Lactate at <4 mmol/L and MAP of ≥65 mm Hg remained statistically significant even after adjustment for patient age and APACHE II score. Statistically significantly increased in-hospital mortality was found in patients admitted from general departments (45.7%) or from other ICUs (41.6%), compared to a lower in-hospital mortality of patients transferred from outpatient clinics (26.5%) or Emergency (38.0%). Severe sepsis/septic shock patients transferred from the department of internal medicine were associated with a higher in-hospital mortality (45.1%) than surgical patients (35.5%).
The most effective measures associated with the lowest in-hospital mortality in septic shock patients were CVP of ≥8-12 mm Hg, MAP of ≥65 mm Hg, urine output at ≥0.5 mL/kg/h, initial lactate level of ≤4.0 mmol/L and administration of antibiotics within the first hour.