This study evaluated hospitalization and mortality in patients with chronic hepatitis B virus infection (HBV (+)) and matched comparison patients after stratifying the patients according to annual influenza vaccination (Vaccine (+)).
Data from Taiwan's National Health Insurance program from 2000 to 2009 were used to identify HBV(+)/vaccine(+) (n=4434), HBV(+)/Vaccine(-) (n=3646), HBV(-)/Vaccine(+) (n=8868), and HBV(-)/Vaccine(-) (n=8868) cohorts. The risk of pneumonia/influenza, respiratory failure, intensive care, hospitalization, and mortality in the four cohorts was evaluated.
The total hospitalization rate was significantly lower in patients with chronic HBV infection who received an annual influenza vaccination than in chronic HBV-infected patients who did not receive an influenza vaccination (16.29 vs. 24.02 per 100 person-years), contributing to an adjusted hazard ratio (HR) of 0.56 (95% confidence interval (CI)=0.50-0.62). The HBV(+)/Vaccine(+) cohort also had lower risks than the HBV(+)/Vaccine(-) cohort for pneumonia and influenza (adjusted HR=0.79, 95% CI=0.67-0.92), intensive care unit admission (adjusted HR=0.33, 95% CI=0.25-0.43), and mortality (adjusted HR=0.19, 95% CI=0.15-0.24).
Our results suggest that annual influenza vaccination can reduce the risk of hospitalization and mortality in patients with chronic HBV infection.