X-linked recessive congenital nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) is caused by mutations of the arginine vasopressin type 2 receptor gene (AVPR2). More than 200 mutations of the AVPR2 gene with complete NDI have been reported although only 15 mutations with partial NDI has been reported to date.
We herein report a Japanese kindred with partial NDI. The proband is an 8-year-old boy who was referred to our hospital for nocturnal enuresis. Water deprivation test and hypertonic saline test suggested partial renal antidiuretic hormone arginine vasopressin (AVP) resistance.
Analysis of genomic DNA revealed a novel missense mutation (p.L161P) in the patient. The patient's mother was heterozygous for the mutation. Three-dimensional (3-D) modeling study showed that L161P possibly destabilizes the transmembrane domain of the V2 receptor, resulting in its misfolding or mislocalization.
Distinguishing partial NDI from nocturnal enuresis is important. A clinical clue for diagnosis of partial NDI is an incompatibly high level of AVP despite normal serum osmolality.