Mathematically gifted children/adolescents have demonstrated exceptional abilities and traits in logical reasoning, mental imagery, and creative thinking. In the field of cognitive neuroscience, the past studies on mathematically gifted brains have concentrated on investigating event-related brain activation regions, cerebral laterality of cognitive functions, functional specialization that is uniquely dedicated for specific cognitive purposes, and functional interactions among discrete brain regions. From structural and functional perspectives, these studies have witnessed both "general" and "unique" neural characteristics of mathematically gifted brains. In this article, the theoretical background, empirical studies, and neurocognitive mechanisms of mathematically gifted children/adolescents are reviewed. Based on the integration of the findings, some potential directions for the future research are identified and discussed.