Kashin-Beck disease (KBD) is a chronic osteochondropathy. The genetic basis of KBD remains elusive now. To investigate the relationship between PPARGC1B gene polymorphism and KBD, we conducted a two-stage association study using 2743 unrelated Han Chinese subjects. In the first stage, three SNPs rs1078324, rs4705372, and rs11743128 of PPARGC1B gene were genotyped in 559 KBD patients and 467 health controls using Sequenom MassARRAY platform. In the second stage, the association analysis results of PPARGC1B with KBD were replicated using an independent sample of 1717 subjects. SNP association analysis was conducted by PLINK software. Genotype imputation was conducted by IMPUTE 2.0 against the reference panel of the 1000 genome project. Bonferroni multiple testing correction was performed. We observed a significant association signal at rs4705372 (P = 0.0160) and a suggestive association signal at rs11743128 (P = 0.0290). Further replication study confirmed the association signals of rs4705372 (P = 0.0026) and rs11743128 (P = 0.0387) in the independent validation sample. Our study results suggest that PPARGC1B is a novel susceptibility gene of KBD.