Most congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) patients carry CYP21A2 mutations derived from conversion events involving the pseudogene, and the remaining carry new mutations.
To review causal mutations and genotype-phenotype correlation in 480 Brazilian patients.
DNA was extracted from 158 salt-wasters (SWs), 116 simple virilizing (SV), and 206 nonclassical (NC) patients. Fourteen point mutations were screened by allele-specific PCR, large rearrangements by Southern blotting/MLPA, and sequencing was performed in those with incomplete genotype. The gene founder effect was analyzed by microsatellite studies. Patients were divided into six genotypes (Null; A: <2%; B: 3-7%; C: >20% of residual enzymatic activity (EA); D: unknown EA; E: incomplete genotype).
Targeted methodologies defined genotype in 87.6% of classical and in 80% of NC patients and the addition of sequencing in 100 and 83.5%, respectively. The most frequent mutations were p.V281L (26.6% of alleles), IVS2-13A/C>G (21.1%), and p.I172N (7.5%); seven rare mutations and one novel mutation (p.E351V) were identified. Gene founder effect was observed in all but one (p.W19X) mutation. Null, A, B, and C genotypes correlated with SW (88%), SW (70%), SV (98%), and NC forms (100%), respectively. In group D, the p.E351V mutation correlated with classical form and group E comprised exclusively NC-patients. ACTH-stimulated 17OHP level of 44.3ng/mL was the best cutoff to identify NC-patients carrying severe mutations.
We identified a good genotype-phenotype correlation in CAH, providing useful data regarding prediction of disease's severity; moreover, we suggest that ACTH-stimulated 17OHP levels could predict carrier status for severe mutations. Sequencing is essential to optimize molecular diagnosis in Brazilian CAH patients.