The aim of this study was to describe the electroclinical spectrum in children with electrical status epilepticus in sleep (ESES)/continuous spikes and waves during slow sleep (CSWS) syndrome according to the EEG patterns.
Clinical data of 44 patients with ESES/CSWS syndrome who were treated and followed at least two years were analyzed. Records of EEGs of patients were reevaluated to determine two aspects of the ESES pattern: (1) the spike-wave index (SWI) on the NREM sleep EEG (Group I: typical vs. atypical ESES pattern (33/11 patients)) and (2) the area of maximum amplitude of continuous epileptic activity (Group II: anterior vs. posterior ESES pattern (33/11 patients)).
Symptomatic etiology was more defined in patients with the typical ESES pattern (40%) than the group with the atypical ESES pattern (9%) by a factor of four. All patients were receiving at least two antiepileptic drug (AED) treatments. Eighteen patients (41%) received AEDs plus ACTH therapy. Complete disappearance of the ESES pattern on the EEG was observed in 18 patients (41%), more than 50% reduction was observed in five patients (11%), less than 50% reduction was observed in eight patients (18%), and no response was observed in five patients (11%). No significant difference was found when comparing the groups in terms of reduction of seizures and the SWI. Seizure outcome at the two-year follow-up was similar between the group with ESES treated with AEDs plus ACTH and the group with ESES treated with AEDs without ACTH therapy.
This study demonstrated that the rate of the SWI (typical vs. atypical ESES) and the maximum amplitude of the ESES pattern (anterior vs. posterior) have no significant correlation with seizure control and reduction of the SWI on the EEG in children with ESES syndrome.