Management recommendations for lobular neoplasia (LN) including lobular carcinoma-in-situ (LCIS) and atypical lobular hyperplasia (ALH) diagnosed in core biopsies (CB) are controversial. Our aim was to prospectively identify a subset of patients who do not require subsequent surgical excision (SE).
All patients diagnosed with LN on CB were enrolled and referred for SE. Cases with coexistent ductal carcinoma-in-situ or invasive carcinoma were excluded. Cases with coexistent ductal atypia (LN-DA) and LCIS variants (LN-V) were separated from pure classic LN (LN-C). Dedicated breast pathologists and radiologists reviewed cases with careful imaging/pathology correlation.
Of 13,772 total percutaneous breast CB procedures, 302 of 370 patients diagnosed with LN underwent SE. Upgrade to carcinoma was present in 3.5% (8/228) LN-C, 26.7% LN-V (4/15), and 28.3% LN-DA (15/53). Calcifications were the imaging target for 180 (79%) of 228 LN-C cases; 7 were associated with upgrade (3.9%). Upgrades were rare for mass lesions (1/32) and magnetic resonance imaging-targeted lesions (0/14). Upgrades were similar for ALH and LCIS (3.4% vs. 4.5%). During postsurgical follow-up (mean, 34.5 months), 6.5% LN-C patients developed carcinoma in either breast.
Although LN with nonclassic morphology or with associated ductal atypia requires SE, this can be avoided in LN-C diagnosed on CB targeting calcifications when careful imaging/pathology correlation is applied. Until larger numbers are studied, excising LN-C diagnosed as masses or magnetic resonance imaging-detected lesions may be prudent. Regardless of their selection for surgical management, LN patients need close surveillance in view of their long-term risk of breast cancer.