Lutein's role on chronic hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress and associated glucose homeostasis in heart and kidney is limited. Purpose of the study is to investigate the effect of lutein on cardiac and renal polyol pathway enzymes and oxidative stress markers under hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress condition using streptozotocin (STZ)-injected rat model.
STZ-induced hyperglycemic (fasting blood glucose ≥11 mM) male Wistar rats were divided into two groups (n = 11/group). Group 1 received micellar lutein (39 nmol/day/rat) and group 2 (negative control) received micelle without lutein for 8 weeks. A separate group (no STZ injected) served as a positive control (n = 11/group). Oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), biweekly urine glucose and activities of aldose reductase (AR) and sorbitol dehydrogenase (SDH) enzymes were assessed. Activities of antioxidant enzymes and antioxidant level were also evaluated.
Lutein-administered hyperglycemic rats showed better glucose tolerance as evidenced with OGTT and biweekly urine glucose when compared to negative control. Activities of AR and SDH were decreased in heart and kidney of lutein-fed hyperglycemic rats. Also, they had significantly (p < 0.05) decreased malondialdehyde levels (66, 34, and 33 %) and increased reduced glutathione level (81, 18 and 92 %) in serum, heart and kidney, respectively. Altered antioxidant enzyme activities such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione transferase were also affected in serum, heart and kidney of lutein-fed diabetic group.
Lutein prevented cardiac and renal injury in STZ-induced hyperglycemic rats due to potential amelioration of altered activities in polyol pathway and oxidative stress markers.