To determine how to manage clinically and mammographically occult benign papillary lesions diagnosed at ultrasound (US)-guided 14-gauge breast core needle biopsy (CNB) by evaluating their upgrade rates.
From our pathologic database of US-guided 14-gauge breast CNB, 69 benign papillomas and 9 atypical papillomas with available subsequent excisional findings (surgery or vacuum-assisted removal with additional US follow-up for ≥2 years) or US follow-up alone (≥2 years) were included in this study. We analyzed their upgrade rates by using excisional or US follow-up findings, with no change at 2 years as the reference standard. Patient age, lesion size, lesion distance from the nipple, multiplicity, imaging-histologic concordance, and histologic findings were compared between groups with and without upgrades by statistical analysis.
Surgical excision was performed in 53 (67.9%) of 78 benign papillary lesions and revealed 5 upgrades (11.4%) to atypical papillomas in 44 benign papillomas and 2 upgrades (22.2%) to ductal carcinomas in situ in 9 atypical papillomas. Among 12 benign papillomas (15.4%) with vacuum-assisted removal and US follow-up (≥2 years), 1 (8.3%) was upgraded to atypical papilloma. The remaining 13 benign papillomas (16.7%) were followed with US and were stable after a 2-year follow-up period. There were no significant differences in the variables between the groups.
Uniform surgical excision is not a reasonable management strategy for clinically and mammographically occult benign papillary lesions diagnosed at US-guided 14-gauge breast CNB. Clinically and mammographically occult benign papillary lesions may be subsequently managed by vacuum-assisted removal or imaging follow-up if atypia is not found.