To evaluate the long-term efficacy and safety of lixisenatide, a short-acting, prandial glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1 RA) as add-on therapy in type 2 diabetes mellitus.
A meta-analysis of 76-week results of 5 placebo-controlled clinical trials from the GetGoal programme was performed, including 3000 inadequately controlled adult diabetic patients where lixisenatide 20 µg once-daily was administered in combination with metformin (GetGoal-M and GetGoal-F1), sulphonylurea ± metformin (GetGoal-S), basal insulin ± metformin (GetGoal-L) or pioglitazone ± metformin (GetGoal-P).
A significant reduction in HbA1c at 76 weeks was observed in the intervention arm compared to placebo (LSM difference: -0.41%, 95%CI: -0.51, -0.32, P < .00001). Compared to placebo, lixisenatide induced a larger decrease in fasting plasma glucose (LSM difference -0.49 mmol/L, 95% CI -0.71, -0.27, P < .0001) and postprandial glucose excursion after a standard test meal (LSM difference -3.29 mmol/L, 95% CI -4.17, -2.42, P < .00001). A bodyweight reduction was observed in the lixisenatide arm (LSM difference -0.40 kg, 95%CI: -0.8, -0.01, P = .05). The risk of hypoglycaemia was slightly higher with lixisenatide vs placebo (risk difference +0.02, 95% CI: 0, 0.04, P = .04). The most commonly observed non-severe adverse events were nausea and vomiting, which after week 16 and week 8, were steadily <4% and <1% in the lixisenatide arm, respectively.
Lixisenatide, a once-daily prandial GLP-1 RA, provides long-term glycaemic control, a sustained beneficial effect on weight and with a good safety profile.