Optic neuritis (ON) in patients with anti-myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG)-IgG antibodies has been associated with a better clinical outcome than anti-aquaporin 4 (AQP4)- IgG ON. Average retinal nerve fiber layer thickness (RNFL) correlates with visual outcome after ON.
The aim of this study was to examine whether anti-MOG-IgG ON is associated with better average RNFL compared to anti-AQP4-IgG ON, and whether this corresponds with a better visual outcome.
A retrospective study was done in a consecutive cohort of patients following anti-AQP4-IgG and anti-MOG-IgG ON. A generalized estimating equation (GEE) models analysis was used to compare average RNFL outcomes in ON eyes of patients with MOG-IgG to AQP4-IgG-positive patients, after adjusting for the number of ON events. The final mean visual field defect and visual acuity were compared between ON eyes of MOG-IgG and AQP4-IgG-positive patients. A correlation between average RNFL and visual function was performed in all study eyes.
Sixteen patients were analyzed; ten AQP4-IgG-positive and six MOG-IgG-positive. The six patients with MOG-IgG had ten ON events with disc edema, five of which were bilateral. In the AQP4-IgG-positive ON events, 1/10 patients had disc edema. Final average RNFL was significantly better in eyes following MOG-IgG-ON (75.33μm), compared to 63.63μm in AQP4-IgG-ON, after adjusting for the number of ON attacks (GEE, p = 0.023). Mean visual field defects were significantly smaller (GEE, p = 0.046) among MOG-IgG positive ON eyes compared to AQP-IgG positive ON eyes, but last visual acuity did not differ between the groups (GEE, p = 0.153). Among all eyes, average RNFL positively correlated with mean visual field defect (GEE, p = 0.00015) and negatively correlated with final visual acuity (GEE, p = 0.00005).
Following ON, RNFL is better preserved in eyes of patients with MOG-IgG antibodies compared to those with AQP4-IgG antibodies, correlating with better visual outcomes.