Cigarette smoking is higher among low-income adults and individuals who reside in federally assisted housing are particularly susceptible to the adverse effects of smoking and secondhand smoke exposure. This study assessed smoking-related behaviors and health outcomes among U.S. adults who received federal housing assistance during 2006-2012. National Health Interview Survey data linked with administrative data from the U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development were analyzed; 5218 HUD-assisted adults were assessed. Demographic characteristics associated with smoking, including frequency and consumption, were assessed among adult cigarette smokers. Fourteen adverse health outcomes were examined among cigarette smoking and nonsmoking adults. One-third (33.6%) of HUD-assisted adults were current cigarette smokers. Smoking prevalence was highest among adults aged 25-44 (42.5%), non-Hispanic whites (39.5%), and adults who resided in households with children (37.5%). Half attempted to quit in the past year; 82.1% were daily smokers; and, 35.8% of daily smokers reported smoking 20+ cigarettes a day. Multivariable analyses revealed that compared to nonsmokers, cigarette smokers had increased likelihood of reporting fair or poor health (95% CI: 1.04-1.52), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (CI: 1.87-3.06), disability (CI: 1.25-1.83), asthma (CI: 1.02-1.55), serious psychological distress (CI: 1.39-2.52), >1 emergency room visit in the past year (CI: 1.09-1.56), and ≥10 work loss days in the past year (CI: 1.15-3.06). Adults who receive housing assistance represent an at-risk population for adverse health outcomes associated with smoking and secondhand smoke. Housing assistance programs provide a valuable platform for the implementation of evidence-based tobacco prevention and control measures, including smokefree policies.