Alzheimer's disease is caused by the destruction or loss of cholinergic cells that produce or use ACh in the brain, thereby reducing the availability of enzyme to other cells. The major treatment strategy for AD is to decrease the level of cholinesterase in the brain.
The aim of this study was to describe the effect of novel series of thiazole derivatives i.e. arylidene aminothiazolylethanones (3a-h) as cholinesterase inhibitors (CEIs).
A novel series of thiazole derivatives i.e. arylidene aminothiazolylethanones (3a-h) was synthesized by treating 3-chloropentane-2,4-dione (1) with urea followed by reaction with suitably substituted benzaldehydes. Structural confirmation of all the synthesized compounds was carried out by spectroscopic techniques (FTIR, 1H and 13CNMR) and elemental analysis. Furthermore, these derivatives were subjected to biological evaluation as potential inhibitors of cholinesterases i.e. acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE).
In all synthesized compounds except two compounds i.e. 3a and 3f, all compounds were identified as selective inhibitors of AChE. Compound 3a exhibited potent inhibitory values against AChE (IC50± SEM = 1.78±0.11 µM), exhibiting ≈7 times greater selectivity for AChE over BChE. Kinetics studies were performed to find out the mechanism of inhibition against respective enzyme. In addition, molecular docking studies of most potent inhibitors were also carried out to determine the binding interactions with AChE and BChE, respectively.
In this study, novel thiazole derivatives i.e. arylidene aminothiazolylethanones were successfully synthesized, characterized and further screened for threir potential as cholinesterase inhibitors. All compounds were found as potent selective inhibitors of AChE except two compounds which exhibited dual inhibitory activities but both of these compounds were highly selective toward AChE as compared to BChE.