Anderson-Fabry disease (AFD) is an X-linked recessive inborn error of glycosphingolipid metabolism caused by a deficiency of alpha-galactosidase A. Renal failure, heart and cerebrovascular involvement reduce survival. A Cochrane review provided little evidence on the use of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT). We now complement this review through a linear regression and a pooled analysis of proportions from cohort studies.
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of ERT for AFD.
For the systematic review, a literature search was performed, from inception to March 2016, using Medline, EMBASE and LILACS. Inclusion criteria were cohort studies, patients with AFD on ERT or natural history, and at least one patient-important outcome (all-cause mortality, renal, cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events, and adverse events) reported. The pooled proportion and the confidence interval (CI) are shown for each outcome. Simple linear regressions for composite endpoints were performed.
77 cohort studies involving 15,305 participants proved eligible. The pooled proportions were as follows: a) for renal complications, agalsidase alfa 15.3% [95% CI 0.048, 0.303; I2 = 77.2%, p = 0.0005]; agalsidase beta 6% [95% CI 0.04, 0.07; I2 = not applicable]; and untreated patients 21.4% [95% CI 0.1522, 0.2835; I2 = 89.6%, p<0.0001]. Effect differences favored agalsidase beta compared to untreated patients; b) for cardiovascular complications, agalsidase alfa 28% [95% CI 0.07, 0.55; I2 = 96.7%, p<0.0001]; agalsidase beta 7% [95% CI 0.05, 0.08; I2 = not applicable]; and untreated patients 26.2% [95% CI 0.149, 0.394; I2 = 98.8%, p<0.0001]. Effect differences favored agalsidase beta compared to untreated patients; and c) for cerebrovascular complications, agalsidase alfa 11.1% [95% CI 0.058, 0.179; I2 = 70.5%, p = 0.0024]; agalsidase beta 3.5% [95% CI 0.024, 0.046; I2 = 0%, p = 0.4209]; and untreated patients 18.3% [95% CI 0.129, 0.245; I2 = 95% p < 0.0001]. Effect differences favored agalsidase beta over agalsidase alfa or untreated patients. A linear regression showed that Fabry patients receiving agalsidase alfa are more likely to have higher rates of composite endpoints compared to those receiving agalsidase beta.
Agalsidase beta is associated to a significantly lower incidence of renal, cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events than no ERT, and to a significantly lower incidence of cerebrovascular events than agalsidase alfa. In view of these results, the use of agalsidase beta for preventing major organ complications related to AFD can be recommended.