Few studies have examined the relationships between the prevalence of chronic kidney disease (CKD) and the metabolic risk factors in a developing country such as China, where genetic and environmental backgrounds differ from those in Western countries.
The subjects of this cross-sectional study were the individuals from 18 to 92y. The metabolic syndrome (MetS) was defined based on the criteria of Adult Treatment Panel Third Report (ATP III), but using body mass index (BMI) instead of waist circumference. CKD was defined as decreased estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2) or presence of proteinuria (urine protein≥1+) assessed using dipstick method.
A total of 26,601 subjects (average age of 48.7y) were analyzed. Among them, the prevalence of the MetS and CKD was 36.4% and 3.0%, respectively. After adjustment for age, gender, cigarette smoking and alcohol drinking, the prevalence of CKD was significantly greater in subjects with than without MetS (OR 1.99, 95% CI 1.57-2.53, p<0.001). Multivariate-adjusted odd ratios for CKD in subjects with 3, 4 or 5 MetS components were 1.82 (95% CI 1.31-2.52, p<0.001), 2.92 (95% CI 2.09-4.09, p<0.001), and 3.07 (95% CI 1.67-5.67, p<0.001), respectively. After further adjustments were made for the other components of MetS, only high fasting glucose (OR 1.52, 95% CI 1.12-2.05) were significant risk factors for reduced renal function(eGFR<60mL/min/1.73m2). High blood pressure (OR 1.81, 95% CI 1,42-2.29), high triglycerides (OR 1.34, 95% CI 1.11-1.67) and high fasting glucose (OR 2.07, 95% CI 1.62-2.66) were significant risk factors for proteinuria.
MetS was highly prevalent in the middle-aged and elderly Chinese population in the city of Jinan. There was a graded relationship between the number of MetS components and risk of CKD. High fasting blood glucose levels were the main risk factor of reduced renal function. High blood pressure, high fasting blood glucose levels and high triglycerides were main risk factors for proteinuria.