To investigate the role of antithymocyte globulin (ATG)-containing reduced-intensity conditioning (RIC) in hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) from unrelated (UD) or haploidentical family donors (HFD), we conducted a phase 2 trial of 237 patients (age range, 16 to 69 years) with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) in remission. Patients undergoing UD-HCT (n = 93) or HFD-HCT (n = 59) received RIC comprising busulfan, fludarabine, and ATG, 9 mg/kg, whereas those undergoing HCT from matched sibling donors (MSD, n = 85) received myeloablative busulfan and cyclophosphamide conditioning or aforementioned RIC with ATG, 4.5 mg/kg. For graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) prophylaxis, cyclosporine and methotrexate were administered. The median follow-up period was 44.7 months after HCT for 161 survivors. For UD-HCT versus HFD-HCT, there were no significant differences in leukemia recurrence, nonrelapse mortality, relapse-free survival, grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD, and moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD. Furthermore, when the outcomes of UD-HCT and HFD-HCT were combined and compared with those of MSD-HCT, there were no significant differences in leukemia recurrence (3-year cumulative incidence, 30% versus 29%), nonrelapse mortality (3-year cumulative incidence, 7% versus 8%), relapse-free survival (3-year estimate, 63% versus 63%), and grades 2 to 4 acute GVHD (120-day cumulative incidence, 16% versus 13%). Moderate-to-severe chronic GVHD, however, occurred less frequently in UD/HFD-HCT (2-year cumulative incidence, 22% versus 40%; P = .006). The addition of ATG to conditioning regimen was a significant predictor for less chronic GVHD (subdistribution hazard ratio, .59). In AML in remission, UD/HFD-HCT after ATG-containing RIC achieved leukemia control equivalent to that of MSD-HCT. Despite HLA disparity in UD/HFD-HCT, chronic GVHD occurred less frequently after ATG-containing RIC, suggesting a strong GVHD-modulating effect of ATG.