Dietary fat intake and risk of non-Hodgkin lymphoma in 2 large prospective cohorts.
Dietary fat intake may contribute to non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL) pathogenesis by influencing carcinogen exposure or through immune modulation.
We aimed to evaluate NHL risk associated with total and specific dietary fat intake.
We evaluated associations within the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) (n = 88,598) and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS) (n = 47,531) using repeated validated dietary assessments. We confirmed 1802 incident NHL diagnoses through 2010. Using multivariable Cox proportional hazards models, we estimated hazard ratios (HRs) for all NHL and common subtypes associated with a 1-SD increase in cumulative mean intakes of total, animal, saturated, trans, and vegetable fats and marine fatty acids. We pooled sex-specific HRs using random-effects meta-analysis.
Over 24-30 y of follow-up, neither total nor specific dietary fats were significantly associated with NHL risk overall. Higher total, animal, and saturated fat intakes were positively associated with the risk of the chronic lymphocytic leukemia/small lymphocytic lymphoma subtype among women only (253 cases; P-trend ≤ 0.05), driven by strong associations during 1980-1994. From baseline through 1994, among women and men combined, total fat intake was borderline-significantly positively associated with NHL overall (pooled HR per SD: 1.13; 95% CI: 0.99, 1.29) and was significantly associated with diffuse large B cell lymphoma (pooled HR per SD: 1.47; 95% CI: 1.06, 2.05), with similar trends for animal and saturated fat intake. For women only, trans fat was significantly positively associated with all NHL. In contrast, during 1994-2010, there was little evidence for associations of dietary fat intake with NHL overall or by subtype.
Previous observations of an increased risk of NHL associated with intakes of total, animal, saturated, and trans fat with 14 y of follow-up did not persist with longer follow-up.
AdultAnimalsDietDietary FatsEnergy IntakeFatty AcidsFeeding BehaviorFemaleFollow-Up StudiesHumansLeukemia, LymphoidLymphoma, B-CellLymphoma, Non-HodgkinMaleMiddle AgedProportional Hazards ModelsProspective StudiesRisk FactorsTrans Fatty Acids