Herbal drug delivery is limited by poor solubility and bioavailability which can be overcome with suitable nanomaterials that will enhance their pharmacokinetics and performance.
This study aimed to analyze the synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from three spices.
AgNPs were prepared using 0.1 M silver nitrate and aqueous extracts of Allium sativum L. (garlic), Zingiber officinale Rosc. (ginger), and Capsicum frutescens L. (cayenne pepper). The AgNPs were characterized using ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy.
The AgNPs were formed within an hour of the reaction and showed maximum UV-Vis absorption in the 375-480 nm range. SEM and TEM revealed well-dispersed spherical particles with little agglomeration, average sizes of 3-6 nm, 3-22 nm, and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger, and cayenne pepper, respectively. FTIR showed that amine, protein, phenolic, aromatic, and alkynes groups contributed to AgNP synthesis and XRD confirmed their crystalline and face-centered cubic nature. Antibacterial action of the AgNPs was in the following order: ginger (minimum inhibitory concentration [MIC] <25 μg/mL) > garlic> cayenne pepper (MIC 125 μg/mL). Antioxidant action showed cayenne pepper > ginger > garlic (inhibitory concentration 50% [IC50]: 40, 240, and 250 μg/mL, respectively) against 2,2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) and garlic > cayenne pepper > ginger (IC50: <31.25, 40, and 120 μg/mL, respectively) against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.
Optimization of this green synthesis would support the production of AgNPs with great therapeutic potentials.
The synthesis, characterization, and biological activities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) from garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper were evaluatedThe AgNPs formed were characterized using UV-Vis spectroscopy, SEM and TEM microscopy, as well as EDX, XRD and FTIR spectroscopy AgNPs were well dispersed with spherical shapes and average sizes of 3-6nm, 3-22nm and 3-18 nm for garlic, ginger and cayenne pepper respectivelyAmine, protein, phenolic and alkyne groups were revealed as the capping agents for the nanoparticlesThe silver nanoparticles were confirmed to be crystalline with characteristic face centred cubic natureThe antibacterial and antioxidant activities of the AgNPs confirmed the therapeutic potential of the AgNPs. Abbreviations used: AgNPs: Silver nanoparticles; UV-Vis: ultraviolet-visible; SEM: Scanning electron microscopy; TEM: Transmission electron microscopy; EDX: Energy dispersive X-ray; XRD: X-ray diffraction; FTIR: Fourier transform infrared; GaNPs: Garlic nanoparticles; GiNPs: Ginger nanoparticles; C.PeNPs: Cayenne pepper nanoparticles; FCC: Face centred cubic; SPR: Surface Plasmon resonance; ABTS-2: 2-Azino-bis (3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid); DPPH-1: 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl.