Acute renal failure (ARF) is a rare serious adverse event after immune globulin (IG) use. Our large claims-based study evaluated occurrence of same-day ARF after administration of different IGs and ascertained potential risk factors, during the 2008 to 2014 study period.
A retrospective cohort study was conducted using a large commercial administrative database. The cohort included individuals exposed to IG products as identified by procedure codes. ARF was ascertained using ICD-9-CM diagnoses. Unadjusted same-day ARF rates (per 1000 persons exposed) were estimated overall and by age, sex, and IG products. Regression analyses were conducted to control for confounding and assess potential risk factors.
Of 20,440 persons exposed, 163 (7.97 per 1000) had a recorded same-day ARF. The unadjusted nonzero same-day ARF rates (per 1000) ranged from 1.92 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.05-10.69) for Hizentra to 16.97 (95% CI, 11.36-24.37) for Privigen and differed by sex. In multivariate analyses, compared to Gammagard Liquid, no significantly elevated ARF risks were identified with any IGs. A significantly lower odds ratio was identified with Gamunex, 0.53 (95% CI, 0.30-0.93). Age 45 and over, prior renal impairment, hypertension, and other factors were associated with increased risk of same-day ARF.
The study showed variation in the risk of IG-related ARF by age, sex, and IG products. The study results suggest the importance of recipient factors, such as older age and underlying health conditions. Variations in ARF occurrence may also be explained by product dosage, administration route and rate, and manufacturing processes, which warrant further evaluation.