Pterygium is a degenerative condition characterized by fibrovascular outgrowth of conjunctiva over the cornea. Many theories exist that try to explain its pathogenesis. The current belief is that this disease is multifactorial with ultraviolet radiation being the most important trigger. Attention is also paid to such factors as tear film changes, cytokines and growth factors disbalance, immunologic disturbances, genetic mutations, and viral infections. Modern classifications consider the rate of fibrovascular growth, its progressive potential, and histological features. In the beginning pterygium is usually asymptomatic, however, dry eye manifestations may be present, such as burning, itching, and/or tearing. As the lesion grows toward the optical zone, visual acuity gets compromised, and thus, surgical treatment is required. Because of recurrences and repeated surgeries, the growth of the lesion may become more aggressive and cause irregular astigmatism. Comprehensive surgery of pterygium is aimed at not only removing the lesion, but also preventing recurrences. Advisable are modified bare sclera techniques with subsequent transposition of the conjunctival flap, conjunctival autotransplantation, amniotic membrane transplantation, and peripheral lamellar keratoplasty (in cases of significant ingrowth). In some cases, antirecurrent adjuvant therapy may be considered that involves the use of mitomycin C, 5-fluoruracil, and VEGF inhibitors. However, the search for the best treatment for pterygium, i.e. an easy to perform, cosmetically-friendly method associated with minimal risk of recurrences and/or complications, remains an interest of modern ophthalmology.