Burkina Faso was one of the first African nations to introduce pentavalent rotavirus vaccine (RV5, RotaTeq) into its national immunization program in October 2013. We describe the impact and effectiveness of rotavirus vaccine on acute gastroenteritis (AGE) hospitalizations among Burkinabe children.
Sentinel hospital-based surveillance for AGE was conducted at four hospitals during December 2013 - February 2017. Demographic, clinical, and vaccination information was collected and stool specimens were tested by EIA. Trends in rotavirus AGE hospitalizations and changes in the proportion of AGE hospitalizations due to rotavirus were examined at two sentinel sites from January 2014 - December 2016. Unconditional logistic regression models using data from all 4 surveillance sites were used to calculate vaccine effectiveness (VE, defined as 1-odds ratio) by comparing the odds of vaccination among rotavirus AGE (cases) and non-rotavirus AGE (controls) patients, controlling for age, season, hospital site and socioeconomic factors.
The proportion of AGE hospitalizations that tested positive for rotavirus declined significantly among children <5 years of age, from 36% (154/422) in 2014 to 22% (71/323, 40% reduction, p < .01) in 2015 and 20% (61/298, 44% reduction, p < .01) in 2016. Among infants, the percentage of AGE admissions due to rotavirus fell significantly from 38% (94/250) in 2014 to 21% (32/153, 44% reduction, p < .01) in 2015 and 17% (26/149, 54% reduction, p < .01) in 2016. The adjusted VE for full 3-dose series of RV5 against rotavirus hospitalization was 58% (95% [CI], 10%, 81%) in children 6-11 months of age and 19% (-78%, 63%) in children ≥12 months.
Rotavirus hospitalizations declined after introduction of pentavalent rotavirus vaccine in children, particularly among infants. RV5 significantly protected against severe rotavirus gastroenteritis in infants, but effectiveness decreased in older children.