Ovarian teratomas are rarely associated with paraneoplastic autoimmune meningoencephalitis. In addition to the well known N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDA-R) antibody, the glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) antibody is a novel biomarker of autoimmune meningoencephalitis that might be seen in patients with ovarian teratoma.
A 13-year-old girl with acute-onset meningoencephalitis and incidental finding of ovarian teratoma was found to have coexisting anti-NMDA-R and GFAP antibodies present in her cerebrospinal fluid.
NMDA-R and GFAP autoimmune encephalitis should be considered in adolescent patients with neurologic or psychiatric symptoms and an ovarian teratoma. Prompt diagnosis and surgical resection increase the likelihood of full neurologic recovery.