Selenium (Se) supplementation has been used to help prevent the progression of Graves' ophthalmopathy (GO) and autoimmune thyroid diseases (AITD) patients. We investigated Se serum and selenoprotein P (SePP) levels in Graves' disease (GD) with and without GO, Hashimoto's thyroiditis (HT) patients and in 27 control individuals (C).
We studied 54 female and 19 male patients: 19 with GD without GO, 21 GD with GO, 14 with HT and 19 with HT+LT4. Se values were measured using graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrophotometry. Serum SePP levels were measured by ELISA.
Median Se levels were similar among all groups; GD patients: 54.2 (46.5-61.1 μg/L), GO: 53.6 (43.5-60.0 μg/L), HT: 51.9 (44.6-58.5 μg/L), HT+LT4 54.4 (44-63.4) and C group patients: 56.0 (52.4-61.5 μg/L); P = 0.48. However, serum SePP was lower in GO patients: 0.30 (0.15-1.05 μg/mL) and in HT patients: 0.35 (0.2-1.17 μg/mL) compared to C group patients: 1.00 (0.564.21 μg/mL) as well as to GD patients: 1.19 (0.62-2.5 μg/mL) and HT+LT4 patients: 0.7 (0,25-1.95); P = 0.002. Linear regression analysis showed a significant relationship between SePP and TPOAb values (r = 0.445, R2 = 0.293; P < 0.0001). Multiple regression analysis found no independent variables related to Se or SePP.
A serum Se concentration was lower than in some other countries, but not significantly among AITD patients. The low serum SePP levels in GO and HT patients seems to express inflammatory reactions with a subsequent increase in Se-dependent protein consumption remains unclear.