Abdominal compartment syndrome (ACS) has a reported incidence of 9%-14% among trauma patients. However, in patients with similar hemodynamic changes, the incidence of ACS remains unclear. Our aim was to determine the incidence of ACS among patients undergoing endovascular aortic repair (EVAR) for ruptured abdominal aortic aneurysms (rAAAs) and to identify associated risk factors.
A retrospective review was performed for consecutive patients who underwent EVAR for rAAA from March 2010 to November 2016 at our institution. The development of ACS was diagnosed based on a variety of factors, including bladder pressure, laboratory abnormalities, hemodynamic monitoring, and clinical evaluation. Previously validated risk factors for ACS development in trauma and EVAR patients (preoperative hypotension, aggressive fluid resuscitation, postoperative anemia, use of an aorto-uniiliac graft, and placement of an aortic occlusive balloon) were analyzed. Association between patient characteristics and ACS development was analyzed using the Fisher's exact test.
During the study period, 25 patients had image-confirmed rAAA and underwent emergent EVAR. Mortality rate was 28% (n = 7), and ACS incidence was 12% (n = 3). Of the analyzed risk factors, hypotension on arrival (P = 0.037), transfusion of 3 or more units of packed red blood cells (P = 0.037), and postoperative anemia (P = 0.02) were all significantly associated with postoperative ACS development. In addition, having greater than 3 of the studied risk factors was associated with increased odds of developing ACS (P = 0.015), and having greater than 4 of the studied risk factors showed the strongest association with ACS development (P = 0.0017).
Overresuscitation should be avoided in patients with rAAA. In addition, patients who present with multiple risk factors for ACS should be monitored very closely with serial bladder pressures and may require decompression laparotomy immediately after EVAR.