Two archaeal trehalase-like genes, Saci1250 and Saci1816, belonging to glycoside hydrolase family 15 (GH15) from the acidophilic Crenarchaeon Sulfolobus acidocaldarius were expressed in Escherichia coli. The gene products showed trehalose-hydrolyzing activities, and the names SaTreH1 and SaTreH2 were assigned to Saci1816 and Saci1250 gene products, respectively. These newly identified enzymes functioned within a narrow range of acidic pH values at elevated temperatures, which is similar to the behavior of Euryarchaeota Thermoplasma trehalases. SaTreH1 displayed high KM and kcat values, whereas SaTreH2 had lower KM and kcat values despite a high degree of identity in their primary structures. A mutation analysis indicated that two glutamic acid residues in SaTreH1, E374 and E574, may be involved in trehalase catalysis because SaTreH1 E374Q and E574Q showed greatly reduced trehalose-hydrolyzing activities. Additional mutations substituting G573 and H575 residues with serine and glutamic acid residues, respectively, to mimic the TVN1315 sequence resulted in a decrease in trehalase activity and thermal stability. Taken together, the results indicated that Crenarchaea trehalases adopt active site structures that are similar to Euryarchaeota enzymes but have distinct molecular features. The identification of these trehalases could extend our understanding of the relationships between the structure and function of GH15 trehalases as well as other family enzymes and will provide insights into archaeal trehalose metabolism.