The surgical procedures directed to the orbit are invariably reported to be one of the most challenging procedures of the neurosurgery and it is very important to take measures to protect the ocular nerves. Many researchers have tried to identify safe approaches or safe regions in the orbit but the suggestions and results vary among published studies. The ocular motor nerves are under risk of injury during various approaches to the orbit. Simple but careful attention to potential variations in the origin and anatomical course of the ocular nerves and their relationships to the orbit may help to define "safe zones" during various approaches, thus, help to enhance clinical outcomes. The objective of this review, therefore, is to discuss the surgical anatomy of the orbit with special emphasis on oculomotor, trochlear, and abducens nerves and further emphasize their relationships with a surgical point of view during various approaches directed to the orbit. Anat Rec, 302:568-574, 2019. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.