Purpose: To provide center-based outcome data on obstetric and neonatal complications arising from expectantly managed pregnancies affected by preterm prelabor rupture of membranes (PPROM) before viability.Materials and methods: We collected data on 130 consecutive pregnancies complicated by spontaneous rupture of membranes before 24 week's gestation, occurring over a 7-year period. These were women who delivered >24 h after membrane rupture, and had no signs of chorioamnionitis or advanced labor at admission. Women with amniocentesis-induced PPROM (n = 7) were analyzed separately. The descriptive statistics of obstetrics and neonatal outcomes were reported.
Results: The overall neonatal survival to discharge rate was 33.8%. Stratification of patients into early (12 to 19+6 weeks' gestation) and late pre-viable PPROM (20 to 23+6 weeks' gestation) revealed a 3.6-fold increase in survival rate in the latter group (12.2% versus 43.8%, p < .001). Pre-viable PPROM following amniocentesis predicted a 100% survival outcome, however anhydramnios impacted negatively. The most common neonatal morbidities of those admitted to intensive care unit were respiratory distress syndrome (78.7%) and bronchopulmonary dysplasia (84.4%). The most common maternal morbidities affecting pre-viable PPROM were clinical chorioamnionitis (47.7%), histological chorioamnionitis (81.8%), retained products of conception (39.3%) and preterm labor (45.4%).
Conclusions: Later gestational ages at PPROM were associated with better survival rates, however neonatal morbidity remained high. Women experiencing pre-viable PPROM following amniocentesis can be reassured, while those with anhydramnios at any time during the latency period should be adequately counseled regarding poorer outcomes.